Rock vs. Mineral: Both are solid, inorganic, naturally-formed substances. However, there are mostly differences, like their uses, structure, and colour.

mineral is a naturally-occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. A rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids. Rocks do not have a definite chemical composition.

ROCK

The solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil.
Example: Limestone, Basalt, Coal, Claystone
Study of Rocks: Petrology
Does not have a definite chemical composition
Colour is not the same
No definite shape

Rocks / Stones are used in forming or building Shelter and Foundation.

Nutritional requirement for the human body: Little to None

Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition.
Example; Gold, Silver, Iron Ore, etc
Study of Minerals: Mineralogy

Has a definite chemical composition;

Colour is usually the same
Usually have a shape
Minerals help in bone and tooth formation, blood coagulation and muscle contraction.
Nutritional requirement for the human body: Only some minerals are required by the human body for nutrition.
Read More: What is Iron Ore?